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|Title:||Skeletal muscle NADPH oxidase is increased and triggers stretch-induced damage in the mdx mouse|
|Authors:||Whitehead, Nicholas P.|
Yeung, Wai Ella
Froehner, Stanley C.
Allen, David G.
|Publisher:||Public Library of Science|
|Source:||PLoS ONE, Dec. 2010, v. 5, no. 12, e15354, p. 1-10.|
|Abstract:||Recent studies have shown that oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of muscle damage in dystrophic (mdx) mice. In this study we have investigated the role of NADPH oxidase as a source of the oxidative stress in these mice. The NADPH oxidase subunits gp91[sup phox], p67[sup phox] and rac 1 were increased 2–3 fold in tibilais anterior muscles from mdx mice compared to wild type. Importantly, this increase occurred in 19 day old mice, before the onset of muscle necrosis and inflammation, suggesting that NADPH oxidase is an important source of oxidative stress in mdx muscle. In muscles from 9 week old mdx mice, gp91[sup phox] and p67[sup phox] were increased 3–4 fold and NADPH oxidase superoxide production was 2 times greater than wild type. In single fibers from mdx muscle NADPH oxidase subunits were all located on or near the sarcolemma, except for p67[sup phox],which was expressed in the cytosol. Pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase significantly reduced the intracellular Ca[sup 2+] rise following stretched contractions in mdx single fibers, and also attenuated the loss of muscle force. These results suggest that NADPH oxidase is a major source of reactive oxygen species in dystrophic muscle and its enhanced activity has a stimulatory effect on stretch-induced Ca[sup 2+] entry, a key mechanism for muscle damage and functional impairment.|
|Rights:||Copyright: © 2010 Whitehead et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
|Appears in Collections:||RS Journal/Magazine Articles|
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